Apolipoproteins are proteins mostly made in the liver and intestine, and they bind fats and lipids to form lipoproteins. They transport lipids in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and lymph so they can be used for energy and for synthesising hormones, vitamins, and bile acids.
Without the proper function of apolipoproteins in the body, a variety of disorders would appear. They have emerged as key risk markers to predict and diagnose different diseases including cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.
There are 8 different types of apolipoproteins (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H), and all play a different role in forming lipoproteins. For instance, apolipoprotein A makes up about 90% of the proteins in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). So if you have a deficiency in apolipoprotein A you will also have a deficiency in HDL. This can raise the risk of heart disease.
On the other hand, apolipoprotein B is the biggest apolipoprotein found in low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs). Therefore, if there is too much apolipoprotein B in the body, there will be an increased level for both LDL and VLDL (bad cholesterol) which indicates a higher risk of coronary artery disease.
As you can see, each and every type of apolipoproteins performs a different function and has a different effect on the body in regards to transporting fats and forming lipoproteins.« Back to Glossary Index